Business Cycles May Arise from “the Summation of Random Causes,” Rather than from Creative Destruction

The Slutsky result summarized below would seem to imply that you can explain business cycles without fingering creative destruction as the culprit, as Schumpeter had seemed to do. The costs of creative destruction are thus reduced, and the case for creative destruction strengthened.

(p. 232) Phil Davies and Joe Mahon investigate “The Meaning of Slutsky.” “A middleaged professor working at a Moscow think tank, [Eugen] Slutsky was virtually unknown to economists in Europe and the United States when he published his landmark paper on cyclical phenomena in 1927. In a bold statistical experiment, Slutsky demonstrated that random numbers subjected to statistical calculations similar to those used to reveal trends in economic time-series formed wavelike patterns indistinguishable from business cycles. The implication was that a similar stochastic process–‘the summation of random causes,’ as Slutsky described it–might be at work in the actual economy, causing prosperity to ebb and flow without the agency of sunspots, meteorological patterns or other cyclical forces. ‘That was a hell of an idea,’ said Robert Lucas, a University of Chicago economist who pioneered modern business cycle theory, in an interview. ‘It was just a huge jump from what anyone had done.’

Source:
Taylor, Timothy. “Recommendations for Further Reading.” Journal of Economic Perspectives 24, no. 2 (Spring 2010): 227-34.
(Note: bracketed name in original.)

The published version of the article summarized by Taylor is:
Davies, Phil, and Joe Mahon. “The Meaning of Slutsky.” The Region (Dec. 2009): 13-17, 42-46.

Garcia “Wanted to Get an Education and Get Out of” the “Sustainable” Life

GarciaJesusAntisustainable2012-12-01.jpg “In a straightforward sense, Mr. García, 44, is a Mexican ecologist. More broadly, though, he is a self-appointed emissary from the land once known as Pimería Alta, an interpreter of its culture, plants and people.” Source of caption and photo: online version of the NYT article quoted and cited below.

(p. D6) Over the weekend, Mr. García would be driving back to his family seat in the mission town of Magdalena de Kino, Mexico. In a way, his personal mission is to recreate the orchards he knew there. He has started with dozens of seedlings in the backyard of the small ranch house that he shares with his girlfriend, Dena Cowan, a Spanish-language interpreter and videographer. (The couple recently produced a documentary, in Spanish and English, about the Kino Heritage Fruit Trees Project called “Tasting History.”)

Yet he remembered the orchards with something other than simple nostalgia.
As a child, he packed boxes of fruit to load onto his uncle’s truck. “My father had this farm that he was renting, probably two acres,” Mr. García recalled. By necessity, “the only things we bought from the store were salt, sugar, coffee and kerosene,” he said. “Everything else we produced.”
“Our mother, she made our underwear out of the wheat sacks,” he continued. “My father used to make these homemade shoes for my brothers: leather, with used tires on the sole. They would hide them in the river on the way to school and then go to school barefooted.” Better that, he recalled, than let classmates see their privation.
By the time Mr. García reached junior high, his older sister has become a teacher and the family’s lot had improved. They installed indoor plumbing, for a start. There was nothing trendy about what he ironically calls their “sustainable” years. “I got the tail end,” Mr. García said. “But I got enough to realize how hard work it is. I learned enough to realize I wanted to get an education and get out of that life.”

For the full story, see:
MICHAEL TORTORELLO. “Seeds of an Era Long Gone.” The New York Times (Thurs., November 22, 2012): D1 & D6.
(Note: the online version of the article was dated November 21, 2012.)

Online Employers Treat Workers More Honestly and Fairly than In-person Employers

(p. 233) John J. Horton surveys “The Condition of the Turking Class: Are Online Employers Fair and Honest?” Amazon Mechanical Turk is a “marketplace for work,” as explained at <https://www.mturk.com/mturk/welcome>. Employers post “Human Intelligence Tasks,” which can be tasks like writing keywords that accompany photos or writing bogus product reviews, and workers anywhere in the world can sign up to do them. Horton used Mechanical Turk to survey 200 respondents, who were paid 12 cents apiece for responding to a survey. Of the respondents, 111 were Americans, 58 from India, and the others from other countries. When asked what percentage of employers in their home country treat workers honestly and fairly, the average answer was 64 percent; in comparison, when asked what percentage of Mechanical Turk Requestors treated them (p. 234) fairly, the median answer was 69 percent.

Source:
Taylor, Timothy. “Recommendations for Further Reading.” Journal of Economic Perspectives 24, no. 2 (Spring 2010): 227-34.
(Note: ellipses in original.)

The published version of the article summarized by Taylor is:
Horton, John J. “The Condition of the Turking Class: Are Online Employers Fair and Honest?” Economics Letters 111, no. 1 (April 2011): 10-12.