December 10, 2016

U.S. Start-Up Helps Foreign Start-Ups Navigate U.S. Bureaucracy



(p. B7) Stripe, the San Francisco-based e-commerce start-up, thrives when other businesses do well. So the company wants to help many more businesses get off the ground.

That is the reason behind Stripe Atlas, a new product the company unveiled this week at the Mobile World Congress in Barcelona, Spain. It aims to make it easier for entrepreneurs to set up small businesses in the United States. If all goes according to Stripe's plan, Atlas could let start-up founders sidestep some of the bureaucratic hurdles that often hamper building a new business.

Determining eligibility requires little more than filling out a form. After that, Stripe will incorporate an entrepreneur's company as a business entity in Delaware, and provide the entrepreneur with a United States bank account and Stripe merchant account to accept payments globally.



For the full story, see:

MIKE ISAAC. "A U.S. Start-Up Offers to Lend a Hand to Foreign Entrepreneurs." The New York Times (Thurs., FEB. 25, 2016): B7.

(Note: the online version of the story has the date FEB. 24, 2016, and has the title "Stripe Atlas Aims to Ease the Way for Foreign Entrepreneurs.")






December 9, 2016

Under Communism, Guests Accepted "Terrible" Service "Because the State Was Paying"



(p. A4) The service, even the management admits, is terrible. "We would not even qualify for two stars," said Yuri Kurtaba, the sanitarium's director of maintenance. There is no room service and no Wi-Fi outside a tiny area near the lobby, and the swimming pool has been empty since the war.


. . .


(p. A10) Ms. Gaivoronskaya 's sanitarium is no longer closed to the public, as it was in the old days, but otherwise everything is left pretty much as it was. It offers a pebbly beach on the Black Sea, a statue of Lenin in the lobby, high-ceilinged rooms with chandeliers, bad plumbing and rotary telephones, as well as glorious sunshine well into late fall.


. . .


Sergey Rogulov, a 39-year-old driver from St. Petersburg, said he liked the shabby Stalin-era interiors -- "it is like time travel back to the U.S.S.R." -- . . .


. . .


Ms. Gaivoronskaya , the veteran sanitarium worker, said she missed the old days, when guests tended not to complain much because the state was paying.



For the full story, see:

ANDREW HIGGINS. "GAGRA JOURNAL: Bad Pipes, Stunning Views and a Tourism Renaissance." The New York Times (Thurs., OCT. 13, 2016): A4 & A10.

(Note: ellipses added.)

(Note: the online version of the story has the date OCT. 12, 2016, and has the title "Bad Pipes, Worse Service: A Soviet Riviera Jewel Is Reborn and Booking Up.")






December 8, 2016

Authentic Entrepreneurs See a Problem They Want to Solve



(p. 2) It seems like so many people want to be entrepreneurs these days.

Authentic entrepreneurs are often what I call accidental entrepreneurs. It's not their aspiration to be on the cover of a magazine. They see a problem in the world and they want to solve it, and entrepreneurship is just a way to get there.

The ones who show up and say, "I want to be an entrepreneur. What do I do first? Give me the to-do list," that's not authentic entrepreneurship.

I do think entrepreneurship can be taught, but there is no playbook. The people who are doing it to get rich and be famous are there for the wrong reasons. There's no harder way to get rich than to be an entrepreneur.



For the full interview, see:

ADAM BRYANT, interviewer. "Corner Office; Humility Is the Mother of Invention." The New York Times, SundayBusiness Section (Sun., NOV. 20, 2016): 2.

(Note: bold in original. The bold is interviewer Adam Bryant. The non-bold is interviewee Jodi Goldstein, the Managing Director of Harvard Innovation Labs.)

(Note: the online version of the interview has the date NOV. 18, 2016, and has the title "Corner Office; Jodi Goldstein of Harvard Innovation Labs: Humility Is the Mother of Invention.")






December 7, 2016

"The Stone Age Did Not Come to an End Because We Ran Out of Stone"



(p. A11) Far from recovering a sense of hopefulness during the relative peace of the 21st century, gloominess has become the default position of the intellectual classes in the Western world.


. . .


Ronald Bailey begs to differ. As his book demonstrates, a careful examination of the evidence shows that, at least in material terms (which is not unimportant, particularly for the world's poor), life is getting better. The overriding reason for this, according to Mr. Bailey, is continuing technological progress, facilitated--and this is crucial--by the global triumph of market capitalism.

Among the scares examined by Mr. Bailey in "The End of Doom: Environmental Renewal in the Twenty-First Century" are overpopulation, the exhaustion of natural resources (particularly oil), the perils of biotechnology and genetic modification, and global warming.


. . .


No doubt the age of oil will one day come to an end. But as my old friend Saudi Arabia's Sheikh Yamani used to point out, the Stone Age did not come to an end because we ran out of stone.


. . .


"The End of Doom" is not quite in the same class as Matt Ridley's classic, "The Rational Optimist," but it is a good book and deserves to be widely read.



For the full review, see:

NIGEL LAWSON. "BOOKSHELF; Apocalypse Later; Despite an explosion in population greater than Malthus could have ever imagined, global living standards are higher than ever." The Wall Street Journal (Sat., July 27, 2015): A11.

(Note: the online version of the review has the date July 27, 2015.)

(Note: ellipses added.)


The book under review, is:

Bailey, Ronald. The End of Doom: Environmental Renewal in the Twenty-First Century. New York: Thomas Dunne Books, 2015.






December 6, 2016

Rat Ticklers Find Ticklishness Has Deep Evolutionary Roots



(p. A12) As Michael Brecht and Shimpei Ishiyama of the Bernstein Center for Computational Neuroscience in Berlin point out in their report, tickling raises many questions. We don't know why it evolved, what purpose it might serve and why only certain body parts are ticklish. And what about that disappointing and confounding truth that all children and scientists must grapple with: You can't tickle yourself.

The researchers were also inspired by earlier studies. " 'Laughing' Rats and the Evolutionary Antecedents of Human Joy?" published in 2003 in Physiology & Behavior, reported that rats would emit ultrasonic calls when tickled. Ultrasound is too high for humans to pick up.


. . .


The scientists found that tickling and play, which involved chasing a researcher's hand, both caused the same ultrasonic calls and the same brain cells to be active. The scientists also stimulated those cells electrically, without any tickling or play, and got the same calls.

And they found that you can't tickle rats when they are not in a good mood, something that is also true of people.


. . .


And the similarity of tickling in rats and humans is, Dr. Brecht said, "amazing." They even have similar areas that are susceptible for unknown reasons, including the soles of their hind feet, but not of their forepaws.

That similarity suggests that tickling is evolutionarily very ancient, going back to the roots of touch as a way to form social bonds in the ancestors of rats and humans.

"Maybe," Dr. Brecht speculated, "ticklishness is a trick of the brain to make animals or humans play or interact in a fun way."



For the full story, see:


JAMES GORMAN. "When Tickled, Rats Giggle and Leap, Researchers Find." The New York Times (Fri., NOV. 11, 2016): A12.

(Note: ellipses added.)

(Note: the online version of the story has the date NOV. 10, 2016, and has the title "Oh, for the Joy of a Tickled Rat.")


Ishiyama and Becht's recent report, discussed above, is:

Ishiyama, S., and M. Brecht. "Neural Correlates of Ticklishness in the Rat Somatosensory Cortex." Science 354, no. 6313 (Nov. 11, 2016): 757-60.


The earlier paper mentioned above, is:

Panksepp, Jaak, and Jeff Burgdorf. ""Laughing" Rats and the Evolutionary Antecedents of Human Joy?" Physiology & Behavior 79, no. 3 (Aug. 2003): 533-47.


Another paper in this line of research, is:

Rygula, Rafal, Helena Pluta, and Piotr Popik. "Laughing Rats Are Optimistic." PLoS ONE 7, no. 12 (Dec. 2012): 1-6.







December 5, 2016

Serendipitous Discoveries "Happen in Medicine All the Time"



(p. 18) In the late 1950s, Dr. Jude was a resident at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine in Baltimore, experimenting with induced hypothermia as a way to stop blood flow to the heart by cooling it down and allowing surgical procedures to be performed without fatal loss of blood.

In experiments with rats, he found that hypothermia often caused cardiac arrest, a problem that two electrical engineers down the hall were addressing in experimental work on dogs, using a defibrillator to send electrical shocks to the heart. William Kouwenhoven, the inventor of a portable defibrillator, and G. Guy Knickerbocker, a doctoral student, had seen that the mere weight of the defibrillator paddles stimulated cardiac activity when pressed against a dog's chest.

Dr. Jude immediately saw the potential for human medicine and began working with the two men.

In July 1959, when a 35-year-old woman being anesthetized for a gall bladder operation went into cardiac arrest, Dr. Jude, instead of using the standard technique of opening the chest and massaging the heart directly, applied rhythmic, manual pressure.

"Her blood pressure came back at once," he recalled. "We didn't have to open up her chest. They went ahead and did the operation on her, and she recovered completely."


. . .


Dr. Jude played down his importance in developing CPR, a breakthrough that The Journal of the American Medical Association had recently compared to the discovery of penicillin.

"It was just serendipity -- being in the right place at the right time and working on something for which there was an obvious need," he told the alumni newsletter of the University of St. Thomas in 1984. "Things like that happen in medicine all the time."



For the full obituary, see:

WILLIAM GRIMES. "Dr. James Jude Dies at 87; Helped Develop Use of CPR." The New York Times, First Section (Sun., AUG. 2, 2015): 18.

(Note: ellipsis added.)

(Note: the online version of the obituary has the date AUG. 1, 2015, and has the title "Dr. James Jude, Who Helped Develop Use of CPR, Dies at 87.")






December 4, 2016

Never Say Die



(p. A7) LONDON -- During the last months of her life, a terminally ill 14-year-old British girl made a final wish. Instead of being buried, she asked to be frozen so that she could be "woken up" in the future when a cure was found -- even if that was hundreds of years later.

"I want to have this chance," the teenager wrote in a letter to a judge asking that she be cryogenically preserved. She died on Oct. 17 from a rare form of cancer. "I don't want to be buried underground," she wrote.

The girl's parents, who are divorced, disagreed about the procedure. The teenager had asked the court to designate that her mother, who supported her daughter's wishes, should decide how to handle her remains.

The judge, Peter Jackson, ruled in her favor. Local news reports said he was impressed by the "valiant way in which she was facing her predicament." He said she had chosen the most basic preservation option, which costs about £37,000, or nearly $46,000, an amount reportedly raised by her grandparents.

"I want to live and live longer and I think that in the future they might find a cure for my cancer and wake me up," the teenager wrote in her letter to the judge. Local reports said she had told a relative: "I'm dying, but I'm going to come back again in 200 years."


. . .


"The scientific theory underlying cryonics is speculative and controversial, and there is considerable debate about its ethical implications," the judge said in a statement.

"On the other hand, cryopreservation, the preservation of cells and tissues by freezing, is now a well-known process in certain branches of medicine, for example the preservation of sperm and embryos as part of fertility treatment," the statement said. "Cryonics is cryopreservation taken to its extreme."

Zoe Fleetwood, the girl's lawyer, said her client had called Judge Jackson a "hero" after being told of the court's decision shortly before her death. "By Oct. 6, the girl knew that her wishes were going to be followed," Ms. Fleetwood told BBC Radio 4. "That gave her great comfort."



For the full story, see:

KIMIKO DE FREYTAS-TAMURA. "Wish of Girl, 14, to Be Frozen, Is Granted by British Judge." The New York Times (Sat., NOV. 19, 2016): A7.

(Note: ellipsis added.)

(Note: the online version of the story has the date NOV. 18, 2016, and has the title "Last Wish of Dying Girl, 14, to Be Frozen, Is Granted by Judge.")






December 3, 2016

Is Asperger's a Disease to Be Cured or "a Way of Being" to Be Celebrated?



(p. C1) . . . until eight years ago, Mr. Robison, who wrote the 2007 memoir "Look Me in the Eye," a touchstone in the literature of Asperger's syndrome, had never experienced the most obvious aspect of music that neurotypical people do: its simple emotional power.

That all changed, Mr. Robison explains in "Switched On: A Memoir of Brain Change and Emotional Awakening," when he participated in a pioneering Asperger's study at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center in Boston in 2008. Using transcranial magnetic stimulation, or TMS, doctors hoped to activate neurological pathways in his brain that would deepen his emotional intelligence.

Driving home after his first session, Mr. Robison cranked up a song he'd heard countless times before. Before he knew it, tears were streaming down his face.


. . .


(p. C6) "Switched On" is subversive in more ways than one. In this age of heightened sensitivity to neurodiversity, one of the most uncomfortable notions you can raise about Asperger's is that it can cruelly obscure the most basic elements of personality. The very idea is offensive and wounding to many people, because it frames a difference as a deficit; to wistfully suggest that a person with Asperger's might be someone else without Asperger's is to denature them completely, to wish their core identities into oblivion.

"Asperger's is not a disease," Mr. Robison wrote in "Look Me in the Eye." "It's a way of being. There is no cure, nor is there a need for one."

In "Switched On," Mr. Robison, 58, retains his Asperger's pride. Part of him even fears he'll lose his special gifts, on the (beguiling, I thought) theory that "perhaps the area that recognizes emotions in people was recognizing traits of machinery for me."

But he is also torn. He did not come of age when "neurodiversity" was part of our vocabulary of difference. He did not come of age when "Asperger's" was part of our vocabulary at all. He received his autism diagnosis at 40, and he has many memories of being bullied, losing jobs and mishandling social situations because of his inability to read others.


. . .


Mr. Robison still believes autism is not a disease. "But I also believed in being the best I could be," he writes, "particularly by addressing the social blindness that had caused me the most pain throughout my life."

But if the effects of Asperger's can be mitigated, what consequences will that have? And what does it mean for the future of the neurodiversity movement?



For the full review, see:

JENNIFER SENIOR. "Books of The Times; Tradeoffs to Easing Asperger's Strong Grip." The New York Times (Mon., MARCH 21, 2016): C1 & C6.

(Note: ellipses added.)

(Note: the online version of the review has the date MARCH 20, 2016, and has the title "Books of The Times; Review: In 'Switched On,' John Elder Robison's Asperger's Brain Is Changed.")


The book under review, is:

Robison, John Elder. Switched On: A Memoir of Brain Change and Emotional Awakening. New York: Spiegel & Grau, 2016.






December 2, 2016

Poor Are Exiting High-Housing-Cost Cities



GroupsExitingHighHousingCostCitiesGraph2106-11-18.jpgSource of graph: online version of the WSJ article quoted and cited below.



(p. A3) Americans are leaving the costliest metro areas for more affordable parts of the country at a faster rate than they are being replaced, according to an analysis of census data, reflecting the impact of housing costs on domestic migration patterns.

Those mostly likely to move from expensive to inexpensive metro areas were at the lower end of the income scale, under the age of 40 and without a bachelor's degree, the analysis by home-tracker Trulia found.


. . .


Another study this year from California policy group Next 10 and Beacon Economics found that New York state and California had the largest net losses of domestic migrants between 2007 and 2014, and that lower- and middle-income people were more likely to leave.



For the full story, see:

CHRIS KIRKHAM. "Costly Cities See Exodus." The Wall Street Journal (Thurs., Nov. 3, 2016): A3.

(Note: ellipsis added.)

(Note: the online version of the story has the date Nov. 1, 2016, and has the title "More Americans Leave Expensive Metro Areas for Affordable Ones.")






December 1, 2016

Uncredentialed Loner Saved Lives with Respirator Invention



(p. B9) When the fraternity of inventors celebrate the geniuses who came up with super glue, kitty litter and the cellphone, they sometimes talk about Dr. Bird, an American original who began tinkering with gizmos concocted out of strawberry-shortcake tins and doorknobs and eventually developed four generations of cardiopulmonary devices that came to be widely used in homes and hospitals.


. . .


Dr. Bird was inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame in 1995 for developing the first low-cost, mass-produced pediatric respirator, known as the Baby Bird, which has been credited by medical experts with significantly reducing the mortality rates of infants with respiratory problems.

The device, he said, saved two Idaho neighbor boys born with breathing distress. Among those aided by his inventions was his first wife, Mary, who learned she had pulmonary emphysema in 1964; his respirators, including one that used percussion to loosen secretions in her lungs, helped prolong her life until 1986.

Dr. Bird, who received the Presidential Citizens Medal from George W. Bush in 2008 and the National Medal of Technology and Innovation from President Obama in 2009, lived a self-contained but busy life on a remote, 300-acre compound on Lake Pend Oreille, surrounded by majestic mountains and forests 50 miles from the Canadian border.

On the estate was his home; the headquarters of his Percussionaire Corporation, with dozens of employees who develop and market his inventions; a working farm that sustained all the residents; an airfield and hangars for his scores of restored vintage airplanes, seaplanes, helicopters, cars and motorcycles; and the Bird Aviation Museum and Invention Center, which he opened in 2007.


. . .


His first prototype, cobbled together from shortcake tins and a doorknob in 1953, was revised often and tested on volunteer patients with limited success. But in 1958, he introduced the Bird Universal Medical Respirator, a green box that reliably assisted breathing and sold widely to patients and hospitals. He later developed improved versions, as well as his Baby Bird ventilator.

Much of Dr. Bird's formal higher education came after his successful inventions. His curriculum vitae includes a doctorate in aeronautics in 1977 from Northrop University in Inglewood, and a medical degree in 1979 from the Pontifical Catholic University of Campinas in Brazil.



For the full obituary, see:

ROBERT D. McFADDEN. "Forrest M. Bird, Inventor of Respirators, Dies at 94." The New York Times (Tues., AUG. 4, 2015): B9.

(Note: ellipses added.)

(Note: the online version of the obituary has the date AUG. 3, 2015, and has the title "Dr. Forrest Bird, Inventor of Medical Respirators and Ventilators, Dies at 94.")









Eight Most Recent Comments:



Ed Rector said:

There are more than 2000 colleges in the USA offering tens of thousands of degrees/majors. Oh yes, there are also a few thousand JC's, trade schools and apprentice programs that train welders. Who should decide what any individual student wants to study?? Senator Rubio, the Mercatus Center or the individual student?? And you call yourselves 'freedom-loving Libertarians' !!



Aaron said:

You need a "like" button. Here's to enjoying bacon and eggs on an unusually warm fall day and doing so guilt free.



Aaron said:

I'd also suggest that work is just part of who some people are and a reason they got rich. A friend's dad comes to mind; he's a millionaire and in his 60s and a couple years ago I saw him cleaning one of his rental houses and wondered why he didn't pay someone to do it, but he's just one of those guys who'd rather work than golf or relax.



Jim Rose said:

It is often forgotten that the Minister for International trade and industry in the late 1960s up until 1971 was Tanaka – the most corrupt man in postwar Japanese politics. He had previously been Minister for Public Works, but to generate the necessary bribe income to pay an entire generation of Japanese politicians to step aside to allow him to become Prime Minister in the early 1970s at a young age, he thought the Ministry of International trade and industry was a better position to garner influence and donations. My professors in Japan worked in the Ministry of International trade and industry and the Ministry of Finance in the 1970s and 1960s. None of them seemed to carry over their picking winners skills into their private portfolios when they retired. see http://utopiayouarestandinginit.com/2014/03/14/if-you-are-so-smart-why-arent-you-rich/



Aaron said:

Interested to see how not only did Hamilton gain a vote, but also how Jefferson lost one.



Dave Megan said:

Merging of companies is always better when they have a better goal. It will give better service for the public.



Ed Rector said:

The 'quickened pace of production' of the early Reagan years was directly attributable to RR's massive deficit spending. The national debt almost tripled under the watch of St. Ronnie. BO will have to work overtime to even approach this record of accomplishment.



Aaron said:

The last two paragraphs comport perfectly with what Paul Tough describes in a book you posted on a few months ago, "How Children Succeed." Tough advocates that a stable, loving relationship between kids and their parents, especially in the first few years of life, produces self-assured and less anxious adults due to brain formation or chemical reactions that take place in a baby's brain (simplified summary). As always, appreciate the posts, especially the Paul Tough book.





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