Drugs Targeting Cytokines Tried Against Covid-19

(p. A9) Doctors have used the term “cytokine storm” to describe an overactive immune response triggered by external pathogens such as bacterial and viral infections.

Proteins called cytokines are part of the immune system’s arsenal for fighting disease. When too many are released into the bloodstream too quickly, however, it can have disastrous results, including organ failure and death.

As with other diseases, it is a mystery why cytokine storms are experienced by some but not all Covid-19 patients, doctors say. Genetics may be a factor.

. . .

Drugs called corticosteroids can be used to treat patients with cytokine storms, but studies are mixed on their effectiveness, with some studies indicating that Covid-19 patients may be at a higher risk of death when treated with steroids. Some doctors are reluctant to use steroids because they broadly dampen the immune response, which is risky in patients fighting infections.

Drugs targeting specific cytokines rather than the entire immune system may be more effective, doctors say.

Among the most promising targeted treatments, doctors say, is Roche’s rheumatoid-arthritis drug tocilizumab, which is marketed under the brand name Actemra. The drug was approved in 2017 to treat cytokine storms caused by cancer treatments known as CAR-T cell therapies.

For the full story, see:

Jared S. Hopkins, Joseph Walker. “Haywire Immune Reaction Linked to Most Severe Cases.” The Wall Street Journal (Friday, April 10, 2020): A1 & A9.

(Note: ellipsis added.)

(Note: the online version of the story has the date April 9, 2020, and has the title “Haywire Immune Response Eyed in Coronavirus Deaths, Treatment.”)

“The Spontaneous, Uncoordinated Effort of Businesses, Entrepreneurs and Innovators”

(p. A1) True Value Co. heard from its more than 4,500 affiliated hardware stores last month that hand sanitizer was flying off the shelves, leaving store staff with none for themselves.

At the company’s factory in Cary, Ill., which makes cleaning products and paint, John Vanderpool, the company’s divisional vice president of paint, recalled asking, “What can we do to help here?” After a tip from his wife, a pharmacist, he consulted with the Food and Drug Administration, then huddled with his maintenance team and engineers over two weekends to retool two paint-filling lines to produce jugs of FDA-approved hand sanitizer.

Starting this week they are being shipped free to stores for their own use. The product will go on sale to the public eventually.

The changeover at True Value’s factory from paint to hand sanitizer is one of countless private-sector initiatives that represent an underappreciated asset in Americans’ fight against the coronavirus. It is a 21st-century version of the “Arsenal of Democracy,” the mobilization of industrial might that helped win World War II, only this time to make personal protective equipment, ventilators, tests and vaccines instead of uniforms, ammunition, tanks and bombers.

And where that arsenal was orchestrated by the federal government, this one has been largely the spontaneous, uncoordinated effort of businesses, entrepreneurs and innovators driven as much by the urge to contribute as by future profit.

. . .

(p. A9) Joel Mokyr, an economic historian at Northwestern University, said national crises such as wars and pandemics historically generate a hive of entrepreneurial innovation, from the late 18th-century search in England for a treatment for smallpox to a German drive in the run-up to World War I to use atmospheric nitrogen for explosives.

“We have this huge reservoir of creative energy spread around the economy. When you have an event like this all of a sudden, everyone says, ‘Oh wow let’s look at this problem—let’s see what I can do to solve it.’ ”

This time, innovators are exploiting tools and methods that didn’t exist in previous crises. In mid-March, Lennon Rodgers, director of the Grainger Engineering Design Innovation Lab at the University of Wisconsin in Madison, fielded a plea from the university’s hospital to make 1,000 face shields.

He often gets requests from around the campus to manufacture random items and “initially, I didn’t take it too seriously,” he recalled. But after his wife, an anesthesiologist, told him the shields were indispensable for dealing with highly infectious patients, he scoured hardware and craft stores for parts.

He teamed up with Delve, a local design firm, and Midwest Prototyping, a contract manufacturer, to design their own “Badger Shield,” named after the University of Wisconsin mascot. They expected to use 3-D printers, then concluded that wouldn’t achieve the necessary scale. They uploaded the design to their website along with the necessary parts for anyone to download. A few days later Ford Motor Co. did, and, with tweaks of its own, began turning out face shields for Detroit-area hospitals.

For the full story, see:

Greg Ip. “Health Crisis Awakens Spirit Of Private-Sector Innovation.” The Wall Street Journal (Friday, April 17, 2020): A1 & A9.

(Note: ellipsis added.)

(Note: the online version of the story was updated April 16, 2020, and has the title “Shoes to Masks: Corporate Innovation Flourishes in Coronavirus Fight.”)

“Real World Evidence” on Effectiveness of Experimental Drugs Can Be Extracted From Electronic Health Records

(p. A7) . . . analysis of compassionate-use data, about the experimental drug remdesivir from Gilead Sciences Inc. published in the New England Journal of Medicine, came under criticism. Scientists pointed out that the Covid-19 patients received the drug in centers around the world where care may have differed, data on some patients was incomplete and there was no comparison group.

That study’s first author, Jonathan Grein, of Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles, said given how little is known about the coronavirus and how to treat it, “I think at this point any information is potentially helpful.” He said the study, funded by Gilead Sciences, noted the findings were limited and preliminary. “It is a starting point, an opportunity to aggregate our initial experiences,” he said.

. . .

The FDA . . . has worked closely with companies trying to extract “real world evidence” about patients’ experiences with new or experimental drugs from sources such as electronic health records.

For the full story, see:

Amy Dockser Marcus. “Hundreds Get Plasma in National Study.” The Wall Street Journal (Wednesday, April 22, 2020): A7.

(Note: ellipses added.)

(Note: the online version of the story has the date April 21, 2020, and has the title “Hundreds Receive Plasma From Recovered Coronavirus Patients in National Study.”)

Blacks Deficient in Vitamin D Are at Greater Risk of Cytokine Storm from Covid-19

(p. A15) Black Americans are dying of Covid-19 at a higher rate than whites. Socioeconomic factors such as gaps in access to health care no doubt play a role. But another possible factor has been largely overlooked: vitamin D deficiency that weakens the immune system.

Researchers last month released the first data supporting this link. Based on a link between levels of the inflammatory marker C-reactive protein and severe cases of Covid-19, they estimate that tens of thousands of lives could be saved world-wide by normalizing vitamin D levels, through its modulation of the inflammatory cascade.

Vitamin D is produced by a reaction in the skin to the ultraviolet rays in sunlight. Many Americans are low in vitamin D, but those with darker skin are at a particular disadvantage because melanin inhibits the vitamin’s production.

For the full commentary, see:

Vatsal G. Thakkar. “Vitamin D and Coronavirus Disparities.” The Wall Street Journal (Friday, April 17, 2020): A15.

(Note: the online version of the commentary has the date April 16, 2020, and has the same title as the print version. Where the wording of the online and print versions differs, the passages quoted above follow the online version.)

The research working paper mentioned above, is:

Daneshkhah, Ali, Vasundhara Agrawal, Adam Eshein, Hariharan Subramanian, Hemant Kumar Roy, and Vadim Backman. “The Possible Role of Vitamin D in Suppressing Cytokine Storm and Associated Mortality in Covid-19 Patients.” (April 30, 2020).

Art Diamond Interviewed on Curing Covid-19

On Monday, May 4, Jim Blasingame, the host of his nationally syndicated “The Small Business Advocate” radio show, interviewed me on issues related to my book Openness to Creative Destruction, and “Free to Choose a Possible Cure,” my April 17 op-ed piece on the web site of the American Institute for Economic Research. You can click on the links below to listen to each segment of the interview.

EPA Brags of Taking Weeks to Approve Soft-Pack Packaging for Scarce Disinfectant Wipes

New York (CNN)The coronavirus pandemic has made all kinds of virus-busting home cleaning products nearly impossible to find.

Disinfectant wipes, especially, are in high demand with consumers clearing out shelves just as quickly as stores restock them.

But now, one of the biggest makers of private-label wipes says tens of millions more wipes are expected to hit store shelves.

Rockline Industries, which makes Good & Clean wipes and store brand products for major retailers, said the wipes will be available at stores later this month.

. . .

Rockline was able to increase its wipes production because of a packaging tweak.

Cleaning wipes are predominantly packaged in hard plastic canisters, unlike baby wipes, which usually come in soft-packs.

. . .

But the unprecedented demand for household disinfectant wipes led to Rockline maxing out its canister production. It needed a different solution to be able to quickly and significantly increase the volume of packaged wipes to meet demand.

. . .

Given how quickly the disinfectant wipes supply is depleting in the market in response to the pandemic, Rockline, in February [2020], started exploring different ways to expedite supply, including alternative packaging formats.

The disinfectant wipes products are registered with the Environmental Protection Agency, which oversees the category and approves new products, new ingredients and packaging changes for individual companies.

So, several weeks ago, Rockline had talks with the EPA about putting its disinfectant wipes in soft-packs in addition to canisters as a way to get even more product into stores. Clorox and Lysol already sell some wipes in soft-packs.

“Typically the approval could take several months,” Dresselhuys said. Rockline was able to get the approval in just a matter of weeks.

The EPA said it’s in its interest to ensure Americans have access to approved surface disinfectant products effective against the novel coronavirus.

“To this end, the agency is expediting disinfectant product reviews and identifying regulatory flexibilities to avoid supply chain disruptions, including ingredient sourcing changes, manufacturing location additions or changes, and packaging changes,” the agency said in a statement to CNN Business.

For the full story, see:

Kavilanz, Parija. “No One Can Get Disinfectant Wipes. One Company Found a Clever Solution to Put Them on Shelves.” In CNN Business, Fri., May 1, 2020, URL: https://www.cnn.com/2020/05/01/business/disinfectant-wipes-shortage-coronavirus/index.html.

(Note: ellipses added.)

Engineering the Bar Code “Was Fun!”

(p. A13) If he had followed instructions from his boss, George Laurer might never have succeeded in designing the Universal Product Code.

In 1971, a supervisor at International Business Machines Corp. told the electrical engineer to devise a bar code based on previous models involving circular symbols resembling dart boards. While the boss was on vacation, Mr. Laurer concluded that little circles wouldn’t do, partly because smears of ink left by printing presses could scramble the code. Instead, he and others came up with a row of stripes, whose varying width and spacing conveyed a reliable code.

. . .

. . . , as he noted in the title of his memoir, “Engineering Was Fun!”

For the full obituary, see:

James R. Hagerty. “Bar Code Designer Defied Instructions.” The Wall Street Journal (Saturday, December 14, 2019): A13.

(Note: ellipses added.)

(Note: the online version of the obituary has the date Dec. 12, 2019 and has the title “George Laurer, Defying Instructions, Created Universal Bar Code.”)

Laurer’s memoir, mentioned above, is:

Laurer, George J. Engineering Was Fun! 3rd ed. Morrisville, NC: Lulu.com, 2012.